Pharmacy Design

“National Survey of Hospital Pharmacy Facilities: Introduction”, (c) Barker KN, Alexander VB, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1986 

Abstract: This paper introduces three articles that report results of a national survey of hospital pharmacy facilities conducted in July 1982. A historical perspective of pharmacists’ involvement in facilities planning and examples of internal and external factors influencing the optimal design of hospital pharmacies are presented. The survey aimed to identify and describe existing hospital […]

“National Survey of Hospital Pharmacy Facilities Space Allocations and Functions”, (c) Alexander VB, Barker KN., American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1986

Abstract: Space allocations for hospital pharmacies and the demand on these facilities in terms of the external environment and functions performed are described. A 12-page questionnaire was sent in July 1982 to the chief pharmacists in a random sample of 1846 hospitals in the United States stratified by 10 hospital types. The respondents in each […]

“Quality and Comprehensiveness of the National Drug Code Directory on Magnetic Tape”, (c) Gibson GT, Barker KN, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1988

Abstract: The quality and comprehensiveness of the FDA’s National Drug Code Directory (NDCD) in magnetic tape form was evaluated. The internal quality of the tape was measured by performing cross-checks of the four record types found on the tape and by checking for the presence of “illegal” characters. The comprehensiveness of the tape was evaluated […]

“Effects of Simulated Facility-Design Changes on Outpatient Efficiency”, (c) Lin AC, Barker KN, Hassall T, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1988

Abstract: The potential effects of using the Baker drug counter or the Systamodule pharmacy fixture, or both, on the efficiency of the current outpatient pharmacy system at the National Institutes of Health were evaluated by computer simulation. It was hypothesized that the use of these two devices would reduce (1) the prescription-filling time (RxFT) and […]

“Effect of Technological Changes in Information Transfer on the Delivery of Pharmacy Services”, (c) Barker KN, Allan EL, Swensson ES, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1989

Abstract: Personal computer technology has arrived in health care. Specific technological advances are optical disc storage, smart cards, voice recognition, and robotics. This paper discusses computers in medicine, in nursing, in conglomerates, and with patients. Future health care will be delivered in primary care centers, medical supermarkets, specialized hospitals, or extended care facilities. (MLW)

“Illumination and Errors in Dispensing”, (c) Buchanan TL, Barker KN, Gibson JT, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1991

Abstract: The relationship between the level of illumination and the prescription-dispensing error rate in a high-volume Army outpatient pharmacy was investigated. The prescription error rate was determined by direct, undisguised observation and retrospective prescription review under three levels of illumination (45, 102, and 146 foot-candles) during 21 consecutive weekdays. Illumination was controlled in the prescription-checking […]

“Patient Treatment Adherence – Facility Design and Counseling Skills”, (c) Allan EL, Suchanek-Hudmon KL, Berger BA., Pharmacy Technology, 1992

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe the essential facility characteristics for a model patient counseling area: (1) activities that should be accommodated by the facility; (2) special environmental and interior design features, with a discussion of their impact on the healthcare provider-patient interaction; (3) storage and equipment requirements; and (4) determination of space requirements for the counseling […]

“Design and Evaluation of a Sterile Compounding Facility”, (c) Allan EL, Barker KN, Severson RW, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1995

Abstract: The design and evaluation of a sterile compounding center for a large community teaching hospital are described. The new sterile products area was redesigned to improve efficiency by minimizing staff travel and to incorporate recommendations of the ASHP Technical Assistance Bulletin on Quality Assurance for Pharmacy-prepared Sterile Products. The design approach combined strategic planning with […]

“Technology and Automation in Pharmaceutical Care”, (c) Felkey BG, Barker KN., Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996

Abstract: Pharmacy computer systems in the future will help pharmacists assess patients’ medication needs, evaluate drug therapy, and manage patient information. Technology companies are developing systems for automatic dispensing and for distributing medications from nurses’ stations in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Bar codes are being used in medication dispensing, verifying prescriptions, selecting patient brochures, […]

“Re-engineering a Pharmacy Work System and Layout to Facilitate Patient Counseling”, (c) Lin AC, Jang R, Sedani D, American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 1996.

Abstract: The development and evaluation of a new work system and facility design for a chain of community pharmacies are described. A new work system was developed to optimize utilization of pharmacist and technician time and allow the pharmacy to increase patient counseling without adding personnel. In the new system, pharmacists would review prescriptions, check […]